Here is the link to Aristotle's Nichomachean Ethics text online!
“Now such a thing happiness, above all else, is held to be; for this we choose always for self and never for the sake of something else, but honour, pleasure, reason, and every virtue we choose indeed for themselves (for if nothing resulted from them we should still choose each of them), but we choose them also for the sake of happiness, judging that by means of them we shall be happy. Happiness, on the other hand, no one chooses for the sake of these, nor, in general, for anything other than itself.” (Book I, Chapter 7)
Happiness, then, is our key objective. It doesn't matter if you are young, old, religious, non-religious, intellectual, athletic, female, male; each one of us strives for what we perceive will bring us happiness. Happiness, by its very nature is an end. It is not the means to another end product or good. What is interesting, is that I think we often get confused about what happiness means. Why? Because the definition of happiness is defined by the type of life a person leads. So how should we define happiness? Is it an accumulation of wealth? Not a chance. What about winning awards and accolades for our successes? Nope. For the sake of this blog, since I want to focus on happiness as found through the exercise of the virtues, I will define happiness as Aristotle defines it:
"Happiness is an activity of the soul expressing complete virtue" (Book I, Chapter 13)
Now it is important to also define virtue, borrowed also from Aristotle:
"Virtue, then, is a state of character concerned with choice, lying in a mean" (Book II, Chapter 6)
For those of you who are a little rusty on your math...(or just don't enjoy it!) a mean is an average of 2 or more numbers. So the mean of 2, 4, and 6 would be 4 because the sum of the three numbers, divided by 3 equals 4. In the same way, a virtue has both an excess and a deficiency which are both vices. The virtue of generosity (in which the virtue is the mean) has the excess of ostentation and the deficiency of stinginess. In order to reach the mean of generosity, Aristotle advises us to shoot for the less contrary extreme. Which would it be? Honestly, in the case of generosity, and with many of the other virtues, I think this involves doing an examination of oneself to identify where your weakness lies. I know that I tend to be more stingy than ostentatious...more likely to be reluctant to give, than one who gives to others out of pride. So then, by aiming towards ostentation, Aristotle would say I will hit the ballpark of generosity. However, I think a great question to ask now..and I am sure I will bring it up again is: Are idealistic virtues setting us up for failure or success? If we assume that perfect virtue can never fully be attained, why strive for it?
I think that is a good place to take a break from Aristotle for the time being. Now for a little story from NPR:
take a look!
I came across this article which is taken from NPR. I have supported my local NPR Station, WFYI TV/Radio ever since my sophomore year of high school when I began helping coordinate volunteers from my school to answer phone calls during pledge drives to raise money for public broadcasting. I consider NPR a very reputible news source which has provided great family programming, unbiased news about interesting topics that are essential to becoming a better global citizen. Anyways, the article below is written about a family that has formed a group in Falls Church, Virginia to teach preschoolers from many different faith backgrounds about virtues; this week's lesson focuses on helpfulness. What is my response to this? I'm ecstatic. Teaching preschoolers about virtues is not only bound to develop their character to be better formed for their childhood and early school years, but this also proves that while religion is an advantageous and praiseworthy way to teach morals to the young, it is not restrictive to only religion. I think this relates to our discussion of aristotelian virtue because Aristotle approaches virtue from a much different stance than a theologian would...while he certainly referred to the gods in his written work, he is considered a non-believer. Yet, the way Aristotle puts into words the rational and truth found through human reasoning is the foundation for St. Thomas Aquinas' great work, Summa Theologiae. The principles of virtue are indeed found through natural law and reasoning, and is one of the wonderful blessings of the human intellect. As a Christian, I am convicted that divine revelation picks up where human reasoning and intellect leaves off. Anyways...what are your reactions? Are preschool virtue groups helpful or harmful to society? If you had or have children, would you participate in such a group?
St. Thomas Aquinas, pray for us!
Mary, Seat of Wisdom, pray for us!